On October 23rd, 11 pieces of Picasso’s oeuvre that has been on display at the Michelin-starred French & Spanish eatery “Picasso”, named after the artist, in Las Vegas will be taking part in one of the most valuable Picasso auctions staged. In collaboration with Sotheby’s, the works owned by MGM resorts have a combined value of $100m and is part of the MGM’s initiative to “deepen diversity and inclusion” within its art collection. Brooke Lampley, the worldwide head of fine art sales at Sotheby’s, said her team could not wait to “bring the magic of a Sotheby’s evening sale to Las Vegas” for the first time. “As one of the most famous, beloved and accomplished artists of all time, we couldn’t imagine anyone better than Picasso to inaugurate this unique art and culture experience.” The Picasso marquee auction, scheduled two days before Picasso’s 140th birthday, is slated to be the “largest and most significant” fine art sale to take place is Las Vegas, according to Sotheby’s, as well as an opportunity for MGM to attempt to reposition the city as a “broader art destination” instead of just the city of Sin.
The collection being auction features works from 1917 to 1969 is a comprehensive display of Picasso’s incredibly “diversity and richness” of his career. Among the 11 works being shown is Femme au béret rouge-orange, an oil painting of Marie-Thérèse Walter, the young model the artist had an affair with between the late 1920s and 1930s. Many of Picasso’s extensive repertoire of portraits of Walter, the mother of his daughter Maya, are illustrated by vivid colors and a sense of intimacy. "I just love the Marie-Thérèse period, because it's the most unusually sincere and romantic period of Picasso's career," Lampley said. This work is estimated to sold for approximately $20m to $30m.
Another highlight of the sale is Picasso’s Nature Morte au Panier de Fruits et aux Fleurs, a still life that was painted during 1942 during the Nazi occupation when Picasso was barred from exhibiting work. The artwork was made with a heavy application of paint, almost reminiscent of Van Gogh. The still life comes with an estimate of $10-$15m.
Other works in the sale include two of Picasso’s larger paintings, created between 1969 and 1970 – Homme et Enfant ($20-30m) and Buste d’Homme ($10-15m). Both were included in a 1970 exhibition at the Palais des Papes in Avignon, probably the most important exhibition of his late career.
The auction on the 23rd will also be accompanied by a four-day exhibition of “the worlds finest luxury items”, from October 21st through the 24th, selectively curated by Sotheby’s to compliment the auction. While the four-day exhibition won’t feature Picasso’s works, it will have other luxury objects such as jewelry, automobiles, and fashion items. The items will then be sold at the end of October, in New York.
Ari Kastrati, the chief hospitality officer of MGM Resorts, said it promised to be a “momentous auction”. “We are committed to creating an even more inclusive collection that maintains the breadth of our existing portfolio while giving a greater voice to artists from underrepresented communities.”
The Prado Museum, or officially known as the Museo Nacional del Prado, is notably considered to be one of the greatest art museums in the world and continues to maintain its status as one of the worlds most visited sites. Located in Central Madrid, it hosts one of the world’s finest collections of European art, dating back from the 12th century to the early 20th, which were based on the former Spanish Royal Collection when it was originally founded in 1819, as well as the most concentrated and dedicated collection of Spanish art. The works of Francisco Goya, El Greco, Peter Paul Rubens, and Diego Velázquez are a few of the highlighted artists housed here, with Goya’s works being the most extensively represented. Velázquez’s works were also known and responsible for bringing many of the museum’s collection of Italian masters to Spain.
The Prado is part of the Golden Triangle of Art, with the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, their collection focusing on the historical through contemporary art, and the Museo Reina Sofía (Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía), which houses 20th century modern art. The collection currently has 8,200 drawings, 7,600 paintings, 4,800 prints, and 1,000 sculptures, this not including many other works of art and historical documents.
Most excitingly, the Prado is welcoming the return of Picasso within their walls, exhibiting Buste de Femme (Bust of a Woman) c.1943. The last time Picasso had adorned their walls was in 2015 from the exhibition Ten Picassos from the Kunstmuseum Basel, and prior to that in 2011-2012. Picasso’s Bust of a Woman has been generously loaned to the Prado Museum for 5 years by the Aramont Art Collection to the American Friends of the Prado Museum and is currently on display in a gallery devoted to the works of El Greco, along with Velázquez’s The Buffoon Calabacillas c.1639. Keeping in mind that both artists heavily influenced the works of Picasso, it is clear that the museum wanted to create a dialog between these three artists together to help define not only Velazquez and Goya’s works, but to define a subtle timeline of the ways Picasso was influenced.
Buste de Femme 43 (Bust of a Woman), as detailed by the Prado, is an exemplary example of Picasso’s response to the violence of World War II. During this period, he would distort many features of his female images in a radical manner and Bust of a Woman is not exempt from these facial disfigurements. Painted in a single day on October 7th, 1943, he applied rapid, confident brushstrokes to bring to life the bust of this woman; in cubist fashion, half of her face is in profile, one eye tepidly looking to the side, the worry and tension uniquely described. Wide-eyed, she stares directly forward with her other eye, seeming apprehensive, the tension palpable. The brushstrokes in the background are messy and confused, allowing us to empathize with the emotions simmering beneath the surface. In contrast, Picasso has painted her in shades of blues and greens for her clothes, bright orange ornaments hanging from the sides that catch the eye immediately, along with the orange circular ornament in the middle of her hat. The resonance of the background tones and the resolute presence of her feminine features divulge her deep understanding and knowledge of the Spanish and their pictorial traditions.
Javier Solana, Chairman of the Board, stated “American Friends’ actions are certainly great news for Spain and all those who visit our country attracted by our artistic and cultural heritage. A painting from one of our greatest artistic geniuses which up to now had been in a United States’ private collection will be displayed in public for all of those who love Picasso’s work, our museums and culture. The Arango Montull Family’s and American Friends’ generosity is helping enrich Spanish cultural heritage.”
The news has created a stir as it opens a new panorama of Spanish art for the museum. Prior to today, Picasso’s date of birth, 1881, had acted as a cut off between the Prado and Reina Sofía Museum because in 1955 a royal decree stated that artworks of artists born before 1881 go to Prado while those who came after ’81 would go to the Reina Sofía.
The exhibition Calder-Picasso, curated by the two seminal artists’ grandsons, Alexander S.C. Rower and Bernard Ruiz-Picasso, is the first major exhibition to put the relationship between these two master artists at the forefront by bringing together over 100 paintings, drawings, and sculptures. After a successful European tour with stops in Paris and Málaga, Calder-Picasso is making its United States debut at the de Young Museum in San Francisco. The exhibition revolves around the two artists’ unique approaches to rendering space, or perhaps more accurately, non-space. Exploring themes such as line, volume, weight, and gravity, the exhibition investigates the ongoing impact of the interactions between these artists’ distinct philosophies regarding the void, or empty space.
Calder and Picasso both worked and lived in Paris and even met in 1931, but the two could hardly be considered friends. The two did not even speak the same language (Calder knew little French, and Picasso did not speak English), but there is no doubt that their work was in conversation. The two often had pieces in the same shows, perhaps most notably at the 1937 World Fair held in Paris, where Picasso’s Guernica and Calder’s Mercury Fountain both resided in the Spanish Pavilion. It became apparent that the two artists, who would exhibit together multiple times in the future, were both wrestling with the same questions of abstraction, sparking a dialogue that would change the conception of art from that point forward. The exhibition is modeled to reflect this dialogue, designed as a sort of visual conversation between the two artists as they continually worked to represent the void in their artworks.
The two artists played with volume, dimensionality, and silhouettes, forming new ways to distort perceptions of reality. Calder’s approach came readily in the form of sculpture, where he was clearly interested in understanding how space is occupied, a topic most frequently probed by connecting two and three dimensional forms through sculpture. His sculptures, such as his wire sculptures and famous mobiles, are composed solely of two-dimensional shapes that relate to each other just as much as they relate to the negative space around them. Included in the exhibition is Calder’s iconic Aztec Josephine Baker, which exemplifies his interest in manifesting line drawing in three-dimensions. Picasso’s approach to the void was both formal and emotional, coming through strongly in his paintings and drawings. The Picasso works chosen for the exhibition meditate on the friction between emptiness and fullness by skillfully abstracting figuration. This abstraction explores the tension between depth and geometry while also acting as a means of representing distortions of time and the emotional inner self. Though their approaches differed, Calder and Picasso shared core interests and their connection has had an indelible impact on art-making today.
Though an opening date has not yet been set for Calder-Picasso at the de Young, preparations for the show have been ongoing. Plans have been made to open the show as soon as February 26, pandemic restrictions allowing. It will be on view in San Francisco through May 23 before continuing its U.S. tour, traveling to Atlanta, then Houston.
Recently, three Pablo Picasso drawings have come up for auction. The drawings are all figure drawings, featuring nude models in various poses. They are incredible examples of Picasso’s more traditional naturalistic artwork, as opposed to his more famous cubist work. The artist had a strong artistic foundation in traditional art, with his early art education coming from his father who was a professor.
The most recent drawing up for sale, titled Deux femmes nues se tenant, was created by Picasso in 1906 and shows two nude female models standing together. The drawing is quite simple and austere, highlighting Picasso’s mastery of line and shape. The drawing went up for auction at Lempertz auction house, based in Germany, in their Modern and Contemporary Art Evening Sale on July 19, 2020. The work was estimated to sell for 400,000 - 500,000 EUR ($447,477 - $559,346 USD) and ended up selling for 325,000 EUR Premium ($363,575 USD). The hammer price was most likely lower than the estimate due to the economic hardship from the current COVID-19 pandemic affecting people everywhere.
On June 14, 2019, the drawing La Source / Femme au chien, 1921 went to auction at Galerie Kornfeld Bern in Switzerland. The line drawing features a reclining female model in the nude holding a vase pouring water with a dog lapping it up at her side. The work clearly calls on ancient Greek imagery and motif, a constant source of inspiration for Picasso throughout his career. The composition is simple yet alluring and captures the viewer’s attention despite the lack of any color or shading. The work was estimated to sell for 200,000 CHF ($200,160 USD) in their Art of the 19th to 21st Centuries: Part 1 auction. The hammer price exceeded the estimate at 210,000 CHF ($210,168 USD).
Picasso’s Homme nu couché, 1967 went to auction on November 30, 2018, in Lempertz auction house’s Modern Art sale. This drawing is the most abstracted out of the three with loops of colored lines supplementing the line drawing of a reclined nude model. The work showcases Picasso’s artistic hand, as it’s easy to see the artist’s process and technique. It was estimated to sell for 360,000 - 400,000 EUR ($407,608 - $452,898 USD) at auction, and ended up with a hammer price of 688,000 EUR Premium ($778,985 USD), far surpassing the expected amount.
Pablo Picasso was a constant experimenter in everything that he tried. From painting to etchings to lithographs to linocuts and ceramics, there was nothing that he was afraid of trying: “I am always doing that which I cannot do, in order that I may learn how to do it.” This was never truer than his time spent in the Madoura studio in Vallauris where his artistic ingenuity and creativity came through in his creations of ceramic sculptures. The diversity of form and range of subject matter lend to these works a rareness that is unseen in his oeuvre.
Pablo Picasso, Jacqueline at the Easel, 1956
From plates to bowls to vases to innovative sculptural forms, Picasso pushed the boundaries of ceramic art with his ceramic plates being the gems. Picasso’s ceramic plates pushed his artistic expression into a defined form as there was but minimal space with which to work with. So what did Picasso do? He deceived our perception of the plate by using its contours, shape, and even the back to make the ceramic appear endless with his creative firing, line, and color choices.
Pablo Picasso, Face in an Oval, 1955
A constant creator, Pablo Picasso utilized all kinds of shapes when designing ceramics, but for his plates, there are only four plate shapes that exist in the Picasso oeuvre: circular, oval, square/circular and rectangular. Picasso knew them inside and out, and knew how to contour them to fit his artistic visions. Each plate was chosen specifically to realize his visions and although only Picasso knows why he chose the plates that he did, we can guess based on his oeuvre.
The oval plate is essentially in the shape of an egg and has one size of around 33 cm x 40 cm. The majority of his works in this form are of abstract faces, so perhaps the form reminded him of people he knew or he saw it as the prefect form of self-expression. Most of these works appear to be deceptively simple until you look closer at their complex color scheme or detailed imagery. An example is Picasso’s ceramic, Face in an Oval, 1955(pictured) where there is a charismatic face gazing out against a russet and black background with a vibrant green border. The work appears simple yet upon closer look, the result is a stunning mixture of Picasso’s skill as a colorist and ceramic artisan, as the complex color scheme with a glazed surface almost makes the work glow.The circular plate is an even distance all the way around and ranges in size with diameters of 18.5 cm to 42 cm. Such a plate would allow Picasso to easily alter its contours during the firing process making them softer or deeper, depending on his choosing. This in turn would enable him to create a scene that was more balanced. An example would be Picasso’s ceramic, Jacqueline au chevalet (Jacqueline at the Easel), 1956 (pictured) that portrays Picasso’s last wife Jacqueline Roque painting at an easel. In this imagery the whole plate is taken up in equal balance leaving minimal space but still allows the viewer a whole scene as it drops over the edges of the plate.
The square/circular plate is a mixture of equal sides and rounded edges, but is elongated, having one size of around 21 cm x 21 cm. The deception of this plate appearing to be larger and longer than it is most likely allowed for Picasso to explore his visual frontiers on such a finite medium. He could place things anywhere he wished, as it needn’t be harmonized or coherent as it could hide behind the shape of the plate. An example is Picasso’s ceramic, Fruits, 1948, which portrays an abstract cactus in the middle of the plate, with flowery strokes creating the border. There is no harmony in the work as the cactus is uneven and the border flowers are heavily dominant around one corner. However the cactus anchors the composition as it rests in the middle and with the flowers on the lip, your attention is always being drawn to somewhere. The shape of the plate assists in utilizing the lack flow, which is a brilliant deception to the eye.
Pablo Picasso, Goat’s Head in Profile, 1952
There is always something new to discover in Pablo Picasso’s ceramic plates and that is the beauty of their form; the fact that they are three-dimensional yet lend themselves to a two-dimensional surface making for a grand illusion. The details, the color, the contours, and the brushwork all tell a part of the story of the creative process for Picasso. The other part is in the imagery itself, the inspiration behind the creation.The rectangular plate is longer on one side than the other and has two sizes, one at 39 cm x 32 cm and a larger one at 51 cm x 31 cm. Picasso utilized this form mainly for portraits, so it is easy to see that such an elongated plate could easily allow him to add features and details that he was not able to do on the smaller forms. The length also highlights the boundary of the lip, which is naturally softer in this form of the plate therefore enabling him to create the stronger borders that are seen in most of the works. An example would be Picasso’s ceramic, Goat’s Head in Profile, 1952(pictured) which displays a beige goat in green highlights against a beautiful blue background bespeckled in dots with a strong border. This goat is perfectly framed by the rectangular form of the plate, which deceives our eyes from recognizing the goat’s finite existence. So enthralled are we with the details that make the imagery appear endless, that we never seem to notice we’ve been mislead which is why Picasso took such pleasure in the ceramic medium.
Once remarking on how “sculpture is the art of the intelligence,” Picasso could certainly say that as the sculptor he is molding the intellectual. This can be seen in his ceramic plates where there is such an amazing diversity of themes: everyday life, plants, animals, insects, bullfighting, women, men, abstract faces, landscapes, cities and mythology. Each speaks to Picasso as a person, and each exists in a truly unique way as no two themes are ever represented the same in his ceramic plates.
Taking inspiration from everyday life, Picasso’s ceramics involved still lifes, plants ranging from flowers to cacti, animals ranging from horses to bulls to owls to fish to goats and insects. He had a large house with which to use for inspiration and had an owl, a goat, mice, dogs, and reptiles that he liked to surround himself with, often going on walks to connect with nature and unwind. As a man who constantly needed to refresh his perspective on life, he found nature to be a constantly changing and isolating, which mirrored his personality and was perhaps why he felt such a connection towards it.
Another close connection Pablo Picasso had was with bullfighting. Having grown up in Spain where the bullfight was dominant, Picasso become obsessed from an early age. As a young man he would even earn admission by selling his works of the bullfight for tickets. Thus the imagery and emotions were deeply engrained in his memory, and the scenes captured on the ceramic plates are his most cherished as they were created with such a tenderness and fervor, that it’s almost as if Picasso was reliving each experience. This could be why his plates are so heavily centered on this theme, as he did not return to Spain for quite some time and perhaps due to his old age wanted to recapture the memories and feelings of his younger years.
Besides bullfighting Pablo Picasso had another obsession, women, and had several muses over the course of his life. Each had important roles in the artist’s oeuvre, but in regards to his ceramic plates, it is his beloved second wife Jacqueline Roque who is featured prominently as she worked at the Madoura ceramic studio and that is where they met and fell in love. She became a rousing force behind Picasso’s ceramic creativity and her features are easily distinguishable by the pointed nose with which Picasso portrays her.
Besides his portraits of men, Pablo Picasso’s ceramic plates also feature portraits of abstract faces. The abstract faces come from one of Picasso’s favorite inspirations, the Chavin. An ancient civilization that developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BC to 200 BC, Picasso drew inspiration from their patterns, abstract expressions, supernatural and deformed shapes. “Of all of the ancient cultures I admire, that Chavin amazes me the most. Actually, it has been the inspiration behind most of my art”.
Outside of culture, Pablo Picasso was also inspired by the landscapes and cities that surrounded him. The most important featured on his plates being the villages and scenery in the south of France where he settled down in his later years, particularly Vallauris, where the Madoura ceramic studio was located. Picasso looked to his surroundings to not only find beauty and meaning, but to represent the communities that had so warmly embraced him as well. A representation that was important to Picasso as it helped to solidify his connection to the location and make him feel apart of something, as he never truly felt like he belonged anywhere.
Feelings such as those are why Pablo Picasso had such a strong connection towards mythology. Quoted as saying, “everything you can imagine is real, ” this other world that he found himself preoccupied with allowed him to express his inner feelings through the representations of the Faun, Centaur, and Minotaur. These intimate reflections make for some of his most decorative and detailed works on his ceramic plates. In portraying the Faun, Picasso looked back to his experiences as a lothario, a fun and happy lover. In portraying the Centaur, Picasso represented his failure to properly find his niche in society. In portraying the Minotaur, Picasso displayed his troubled life of self-loathing and depression, his lowest ebb. All of which powerfully combine to tell the journey of his life, a story that is expressed brilliantly in his plates.
With such inspiration at his disposal and the perfect medium of a ceramic plate with which to place them on, its no wonder that they are today some of his most revered and sought after works. As a man of many talents and moods, Picasso never stopped experimenting, saying “He can who thinks he can, and he can’t who thinks he can’t. This is an inexorable, indisputable law.” Picasso’s ceramics are perhaps the greatest testament to that belief for he created them with no prior knowledge or skill, but went in with passion, inspiration, and a fire to learn and create. Known as El Maestro (“the master”) of modern art, his great imagination and outstanding skill stand the test of time, as do his magnificent ceramic plates.
Throughout his long artistic career, Pablo Picasso worked in eight studio spaces around France: Le BateauLavoir, Studio at rue Schoelcher, Castle at Boisgeloup in Normandy, Studio at rue des Grands-Augustins, Fournas Studio, Studio of “La Californie,” and Vauvenargues Castle to the Mas de Notre Dame de Vie in Provence. A new exhibition Picasso’s Studios opened in the Fire Station: Artists in Residence space at Qatar Museums on July 1, 2020. The exhibition was curated by Virginie Perdrisot-Cassan, Curator of Paintings (1921-1973), Sculptures and Ceramics at the Musée national Picasso-Paris.
Picasso’s Studios follows the artist’s work chronologically through each of his studio spaces. It offers a new look into Picasso’s art practice and the physical spaces he created in. The exhibition includes eight distinct galleries, each representing a studio and the subsequent period of his career that Picasso worked there.
Sheikha Reem Al Thani, Director of Exhibitions at QM, said: “We are absolutely delighted to finally be able to share with the public this exceptional exhibition we have organised in collaboration with the Musée national Picasso in Paris. Picasso’s Studios is a celebration of a great artist’s career and gives us a unique view into his art practice. All the works at one time belonged to the artist’s personal collection, and all are grouped within the exhibition to recall the places in which they were created. It is especially appropriate that we are presenting Picasso’s Studios at the Fire Station: Artist in Residence, where outstanding contemporary Qatari artists produce and show their work in Doha today.”
Starting with Picasso’s arrival to Paris in 1900, the exhibition spans eight decades of the artist’s life, ending with his final years in the 1970s on the Mediterranean. Picasso’s Studios is part of the 2020 Qatar-France Year of Culture, a Qatar Museums initiative devoted to connecting the two countries’ people and institutions through art and cultural exchanges.
“Pablo Picasso, one of the most influential artists of his generation, spent most of his adult life in France where he fell in love with the country and its riviera towns. We are pleased to bring this outstanding exhibition to Qatar as part of our Year of Culture programme, and introduce the collection of one of France’s most iconic museums to our audiences,” says Aisha Ghanem Al Attiya, Head of Years of Culture, QM of the exhibition.
Visitors may reserve tickets in advance on the Qatar Museums website. The museum is following health and safety precautions as instructed by the government, including limiting the number of visitors, requiring a ‘green’ health status on the Ehteraz virustracing app, monitoring temperature of visitors upon arrival and requiring masks at all times for visitors over the age of 12 years old.
On December 28th, a visitor at the Tate Modern attacked Pablo Picasso’s original work Buste de Femme (Bust of a Woman), 1944, valued at $26 million. The 75-year-old oil painting, created by one of the most influential and prolific artists in history, has now been removed from public view and awaits word from conservation experts.
The Tate Modern in London is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the UK and one of the most influential art galleries in the world. The gallery has an extensive collection of works, including several by Pablo Picasso. His Buste de Femme (Bust of a Woman), 1944 was created in the artist’s studio at Rue des Grands-Augustins during the closing months of the Nazi occupation in Paris. The painting illustrates the artist’s ex-lover, Dora Maar, the woman credited with documenting the process of Picasso’s Guernica in 1937. Maar, a French photographer, painter and poet well-known is Surrealist circles, met Picasso in 1936 and is, to her dismay, famously depicted by him as a woman in perpetual sorrow.
In the work housed by the Tate Modern, Dora Maar is portrayed in a similar fashion in this work to that of another prominent representation of her entitled The Weeping Woman; pieces of color are juxtaposed together to create a scintillating portrait in an explicitly cubist manner. In Buste de Femme, 1944, the image that Picasso creates is one of both beauty and consternation. The composition is devised of geometric forms in purple, green, yellow, blue and red which collectively produce the portrayal of the artist’s muse. The woman that Picasso illustrates is beautiful in her rendering, though she exhibits a morose fear in her expression. Despite her talent and success as an artist, Picasso has often regarded Maar as a sorrowful pitiful woman; this depiction of her reflects such sentiment. The woman sits wide-eyed in the center of the work with a fearful look on her face. Her gaze draws the viewer in to an intimate moment of vulnerability.
The celebrated work of art was tarnished on Saturday, December 28th by 20-year-old Shakeel Ryan Massey of North London. Museum security quickly apprehended him, but not before he managed to tear a rip in the $26 million canvas. Because of the damage, the work was removed from public view. Massey was taken into custody, though he denies any responsibility in damaging the painting. He has been denied bail and is being held in police custody until January 30th when his pre-trail hearing will take place.
Representatives of the Tate Modern have declined giving a statement on the severity of the damage inflicted on the work. However, the work is being assessed by conservation experts in an attempt to eventually restore the work to its former glory.
Pablo Picasso Blue Period (1901-1904) and his Paintings:
Hailed as a defining moment in Pablo Picasso’s artistic career, The Blue Period (1901-1904) was inspired by Picasso’s own emotional turmoil and financial destitution. Following a journey through Spain and the suicide of his close friend and confidant Carlos Casagemas (1881-1901) in February 1901, Picasso’s work took a dramatic turn. Casagemas, a poet, fell victim to unrequited love and ultimately took his own life after attempting to kill his scorned lover. His suicide had a deep and profound affect on Picasso, who was struggling as an unrecognized and poverty-stricken artist living in Paris at the time.
Beginning with several paintings memorializing Casagemas in late 1901, Pablo Picasso’s themes grew solemn and dark. He adopted a nearly monochromatic palette of blues and blue greens and began to convey somber scenes of misery and misfortune. The monochromatic use of blue was commonly used in symbolist paintings in Spain and France, where it was often affiliated with the emotions of melancholy and despair, suggesting that Picasso drew inspiration for The Blue Period from his time spent in Spain observing these symbolist works.
“Picasso metaphorically allows his subjects to escape their fate and occupy a utopian state of grace. Some are afflicted with blindness, a physical condition that symbolically suggests the presence of spiritual inner vision.”
The Blue Period also directed Picasso’s attention to subjects of misfortune: beggars, drunks, prostitutes, and the crippled, hungry, sick, and destitute. However, rather than show the specific circumstances of their misfortune, Picasso elongated his subjects’ forms, endowing them with a unique sense of haunting beauty and supernatural grace. As the National Gallery of Art (2014) suggests, by idealizing these figures, “Picasso metaphorically allows his subjects to escape their fate and occupy a utopian state of grace. Some are afflicted with blindness, a physical condition that symbolically suggests the presence of spiritual inner vision.”
Throughout the Blue Period, Pablo Picasso produced many works addressing symbolic, philosophical, and humanitarian themes. La Vie, one of Picasso’s most iconic and mysterious works, has been interpreted (and disputed) by historians as an allegorical reference to birth, death, and redemption, the responsibilities of daily life, sexual incompatibility, and the struggles behind artistic creativity. A nude couple and a robed woman cradling a baby stand ominously before two paintings that depict figures crouched over in despair. The composition is stilted, the space compressed, the gestures stiff, and the tones predominantly blue – features characteristic of works from Picasso’s Blue Period. La Vie began as a self-portrait, but Picasso soon found his own features transforming to those of his lost friend Casagemas (the male figure on the left), perhaps suggesting the very personal nature of this work.
While Picasso worked predominantly as a painter during The Blue Period, he also created phenomenal prints in the style of The Blue Period. These marvelous prints are often created after the image of renowned Picasso paintings, such as The Embrace and The Two Saltimbanques (Harlequin and his Companion). Picasso also incorporated pochoir, or hand-applied watercolor, to the majority of these prints, further contributing a sense of texture and emotion. Picasso’s journey into the dark depths of The Blue Period transformed his career as an artist. As a result, these prints, created in the style of The Blue Period, are amongst Picasso’s most valuable and desirable prints in today’s market. While The Blue Period ultimately defined Picasso as a modern artist, it serves as a reflection of Picasso’s own melancholy nature during a difficult period in his life. Furthermore, it highlights Picasso’s immense ability as an artist to channel his own misery and hardship into a revolutionary form of artistic expression.
Pablo Picasso’s ceramics are a hot commodity on the art market today. Picasso produced over 124,000 ceramic works with the help of the Madoura Pottery Atelier in a small town in the South of France. These ceramics are highly sought after, since demand increased dramatically for them in the 1980s, when they gained popularity in Japan. Today, many Picasso ceramic pieces regularly go for thousands of dollars at auctions around the world. But what is special about Picasso’s ceramic works is that the price point can be as low as $1,000 for certain pieces, widening the demographic of buyers who can afford one of these pieces. Instead of the insanely high prices of an original Picasso painting, which go for millions of dollars, Picasso ceramics are available to many more people are a much lower price point. These works are more accessible than many of Picasso’s other art, which is something that Picasso loved about pottery in the first place.
For a long time, Picasso ceramics were nothing but souvenirs tourists could take home for a cheap price tag from visiting Vallauris, the village in the south of France that houses Madoura Pottery. The artisans at the atelier made thousands of ceramic works with Picasso and they were not nearly as well known as his other artistic works in the beginning. In the 1980s, Japanese tourists began to seek out these ceramic works and the demand for Picasso ceramics exploded. Since then, Picasso’s ceramic works have been catalogued in a catalogue raisonne put together by Suzanne and George Ramie, the owners of Madoura Pottery.
This catalogue helped create a reliable market for the ceramic works, since there are so many editions, it allowed buyers to feel confident about their purchase. In 2015, Picasso ceramics shot up in demand once again. Marina Picasso, granddaughter of Picasso, auctioned off her own personal collection of Picasso ceramics that summer. The pieces sold for much more than was anticipated, with some works selling for almost four times the expected price. This auction cemented in the fact that Picasso ceramics are a valuable commodity on the art market.
Today, the market for Picasso pottery is still hot. Picasso ceramics are the perfect starting point for an amateur collector, and are continually still sought after by art lovers of all levels. Picasso ceramics continue to increase in their popularity at auctions around the world. Due to the high volume of pieces available, Picasso ceramics are constantly being put on the market and buyers snap them up quickly. Depending on the size of the edition and the popularity of the ceramic, the price tag for one of these ceramics can be very affordable. Because of this, Picasso ceramics can be a wonderful place to start if you are new to the world of collecting. There is a Picasso ceramic for every collector out there, no matter your budget, as long as you’re willing to do the research. Picasso himself talked about the equalizing nature of pottery and ceramics, and especially enjoyed the fact that more people would be able to have a Picasso artwork in their home through his ceramics.
In July of 1946, Pablo Picasso traveled to a small town in the South of France, known for its ceramics and pottery, called Vallauris. His first trip there would spark an interest in the field of ceramics for Picasso that would go on for many years, and come to define the latter years of his career. On that trip Picasso came across a Madoura Atelier pottery stand, and was intrigued by the quality of their work. The atelier was owned by Suzanne and George Ramie, who would later invite Picasso to experiment with his ceramics in a corner of their studio.
When Picasso began making his beloved Picasso ceramics sculptures, he was in his sixties. He had long since been an established and well-known artist, due to his incredible mastery in painting, sculpture, drawing and print-making. Picasso was constantly experimenting in those mediums and it makes sense that he wanted to delve into the world of ceramics as well. He was a lifelong student of art techniques, and pottery was something he had zero knowledge of up until this point in his life. Claude Picasso, one of his sons, said of his pottery, “My father never considered himself a potter. But approached the medium of clay as he would any other in order to find out what the materials and techniques of the potter’s studio could offer him and what he could discover by probing their inherent qualities or possibilities.” Picasso used his time with the Ramies to learn everything he could about pottery techniques. He made Vallauris his residence from 1948 to 1955, and experimented during this time with ceramics with the help of pottery expert, Suzanne Ramie.
Picasso’s ceramic experiments included pitchers, plates, vases and plaques that he hand-crafted, fired and painted. He worked from sketches he would bring into the pottery studio, and there he began translating his two-dimensional ideas into three-dimensional creations. He often experienced structural issues and problems with his decorative elements, and spent long hours trying to correct his technique through trial and error. Though he lacked in technical knowledge, he made up for it in passionate determination.
Some of Picasso’s ceramics, like Tête (Head), 1956, are painted with delicately colored glazes. Mastering glazes like these takes many years of practice and skill, since the artist can’t be sure how the firing of the kiln will affect their design. There are many different factors that can affect the outcome of the piece in the kiln. High temperatures, the makeup of the glaze and the type of clay used can all change how the firing process goes. Creating subtle variances in his pigmented glazes is extremely difficult to perfect, and many of his works would have ended in disaster before reaching any sort of consistency. Picasso did not believe any ceramics should be thrown away, so even when his pieces cracked or broke in the kiln, he had Madoura artisans work as his “mechanics” and patch up the ceramic as best they could.
Picasso's experimentation with pottery changed the medium as a whole. Creating new ways of decorating and glazing his three-dimensional works allowed Picasso to express his artistic ideas in ways that had never been done before. Picasso’s ceramics are a large and influential portion of his life’s work and it is fascinating to see his progress from ceramic novice to pottery prodigy.
The question “How many pieces of pottery did Picasso make?” does not have a simple answer, like one might think. Pablo Picasso began his journey into the world of pottery in the summer of 1946, with a trip to the South of France. Inspired by the work of the Madoura Pottery Atelier, Picasso wanted to learn anything and everything he could about the medium. He found a teacher in one of the owners of the Madoura Atelier, Suzanne Ramie. This is how the famous Picasso Ceramics began. Suzanne Ramie shared her expertise with the artist and offered a corner of the studio to him to use for his practice. Picasso made the town of Vallauris, where the Madoura Atelier was located, his home from 1946 to 1955 and in this time he experimented with many different types of ceramics and decorative techniques.
Picasso Ceramics were made in plates, pitchers, vases, plaques, and more during this late period in his career. He produced over 4,000 original ceramic pieces. But that does not quite answer our original question of how many pottery pieces he made. This is because there are over 120,000 Editioned Picasso Ceramics out in the world that have been recorded. It is important to understand what “editioned” means in this context. Picasso created editions of anywhere from 25 to 500, meaning a batch of the same work made over again 25 times or 500 times, depending on the size of the edition. Each one gets numbered and signed, and are works of Picasso. Picasso collaborated with Madoura artisans to create these Editioned ceramics.
The Editioned Picasso Ceramics were originally sold to tourists of the area for cheap, but when the works became popular in Japan in the 1980s, the demand for them exploded and prices for these ceramics skyrocketed. Since then, Editioned Picasso Ceramics have become a hot commodity in the art market. Part of this comes from the fact that each editioned ceramic is catalogued in an extensive catalogue raisonne from Suzanne and George Ramie, the owners of the Madoura Pottery Atelier. Because of the wealth of reliable information, buyers know of and seek out these works to purchase. Sometimes the demand for an editioned work can exceed the demand for a unique original piece by Picasso himself.
The last piece of the equation for how many pieces of pottery Picasso produced, involves something called “Edition Picasso Variants.” These Variant works are Editioned pieces that are not part of the official count in the Ramie catalogue raisonne because they were for some reason decorated differently than the rest of the editioned pieces. There is no information on why these variants exist, but there are a few theories. These pieces could be possible tests of different designs and decorations before Picasso chose the final design, or maybe the Madoura artisans were playing around with leftover ceramics. Whatever the reason, these variants are unique in some way from the original design. There is no known catalogued number of these Variant Ceramics so there is no way to know how many are in existence. However, it is important to note, that these "variants" still carry the official Picasso signature and stamps used for all Picasso Ceramics.
So, how many pieces of pottery did Picasso create?
Well, I guess the short answer is there are at least 4,000 Original Picasso Ceramics, 120,000 Editioned Picasso Ceramics, and some unknown number of Edition Picasso Variants out there. It is clear that this ceramic phase in Picasso’s life was a productive one, with the sheer number of pieces he was able to produce. Something Picasso really liked about the medium of pottery was that it bridged the gap between fine art lovers and every day people. He liked that everyone had functional pottery in their home, no matter their class or status. Through his Editioned Picasso Ceramic works, Picasso was able to create a massive body of work able to reach thousands of people around the world, just like he would have wanted.
Pablo Picasso, one of the most prolific and well-known artists in history with nearly 50,000 known works, is famed for his recalcitrant invention of Cubism alongside Georges Braque. The artist was also known as it happen for his, often controversial, chronicles with women. Picasso had several muses over the course of his lifetime which appeared in his work. One notable young woman who Picasso chose to immortalize in more than 60 works is Sylvette David.
David and Picasso first met in Vallarius in 1954 at an exhibition where her fiancé, Toby Jellinek, was showing. Picasso had one of Jellinek’s chairs delivered to his studio where he presented a portrait of the 19-year-old drawn from memory and asked her to pose for him. This meeting would inspire several drawings and sculptures as well as 28 paintings over the course of just a few months. Life Magazine referred to this interval as his “Ponytail Period,” and it imparted instant fame to David. High ponytails fashioned after the artist’s depictions of Sylvette gained immense popularity in France during the summer of 1954. One of the most memorable works that likely sparked this development was his Sylvette, 1954. The work features the model from the waist up posed in profile and rendered in the classic Picasso Cubist style with great emphasis placed on the elegance of her polished hairstyle.
At the time of their meeting, Picasso’s personal life was in shambles; at 73, his wife Francoise Gilot had just left him. In his old age he seemed to have found comfort in the shy youthfulness of Sylvette. However, she did not succumb to the charms of the renowned artist and they maintained a purely professional relationship for the duration of their time together. The portraits of Sylvette flamed out after Picasso met his next love, Jacqueline Roque. The women who Picasso claimed as muses are legendary for losing their minds following their respective relationships with the artist. Sylvette, however, survived unscathed and went on to pursue her own artistic career.
Contemporary critics tend to discount this body of work because of its ephemerality; the high ponytail and the button down coats which Sylvette often sports in Picasso’s depictions of her were French trends of the 1950s and therefore, according to some, lack the qualities of notable work in the course of art history. However, the series of works that David modeled for is often regarded as Picasso’s only successful attempt at drawing from a model, and the beauty of the work is undeniable. The legacy of the works featuring the 19 year old endures in the work of Sylvette, now known as Lydia Corbett, herself. Though she was able to avoid the so-called madness which so tragically afflicted the other women in Picasso’s life, his influence is still clear in her oeuvre today.
Similar portraits of women by Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso, born in 1881 in Malaga, Spain, and died in 1973 in Mougins, France, was an active artist for most of his long life. His father was an artist himself, was Picasso’s first and most formative art teacher. Picasso has one of the most prolific creative careers in history, and his work was not only loved by art lovers around the world, but it was also incredibly influential for artists everywhere. But what was Picasso’s inspiration? What inspired these famous works?
Picasso went through many creative phases in his career. These phases have been labeled as “periods” and show the different styles and mediums he was experimenting with during that time in his life. Picasso's “Blue Period” started in 1901 and lasted until 1904. During this period, Picasso painted mostly in cool blue and green tones, sometimes using a warmer color to accent his works. These pieces have a melancholy about them, and are quite somber, featuring scenes of poverty and desolation. What was Picasso’s inspiration to start painting in this way? In the spring of 1901, one of Picasso’s dear friends, a painter and poet named Carlos Casagemas, committed suicide in a cafe in Paris. Picasso was deeply affected by his death, and sank into a depression that lasted several years. Picasso’s journey through his grief and depression is clearly reflected in his “Blue Period.”
In 1904, Picasso moved to Montmartre in Paris, and settled into the community of bohemian artists and creators there. Coming out of his depression over his friend’s death, Picasso moved on from dark and serious subjects in his paintings to more lighthearted compositions featuring harlequins, clowns and carnival performers. His color palette warmed up as well, with his paintings now bathed in reds, oranges, pinks and earth tones. This period would be known as Picasso's “Rose Period” and it lasted until 1906. So what can be credited with this major shift in his work? Picasso met a woman named Fernande Olivier in 1904 and they began a relationship that lasted seven years. Olivier would be the first of a long line of women who were muses and lovers to Picasso over the years. This relationship and the end of his bout of depression signaled a more positive phase of Picasso’s life. The overall tone of his work during this period is much more carefree and less somber.
Citing beautiful women as inspiration would become a theme in Picasso’s life, all the way up until his death. Picasso has been quoted saying: “For me there are only two kinds of women, goddesses and doormats.” He often became obsessed with a young woman and she became an artistic muse for him, inspiring many works. All of the women Picasso took as either wives or lovers were painted by the artist. His second wife Jacqueline Roque was the subject of over 400 portraits by Picasso, and was a great source of inspiration to him.
From 1906-1909 Picasso was heavily inspired by African art, after he was exposed to traditional African masks and other art objects coming from Africa into French museums in Paris. This phase has been called his “African Period,” and was a precursor to his most famous period, “Cubism.” Influenced by Paul Cezanne’s experimentation with three-dimensional spacing and perspective, Picasso and Georges Braque pioneered the artistic movement known as Cubism. This way of breaking down a form to its most basic forms and reconstructing them in an abstracted way is what Picasso is most known for.
So what can we say was Picasso’s inspiration?
Throughout his life, Picasso's inspiration came in many different forms. Whether it be working through his emotions, responding to a difficult life event, meeting a beautiful young woman, an intense love affair or the work of his fellow artists, Picasso took inspiration from everywhere in his life. In turn, his life’s work has inspired and influenced millions of people around the world and forever changed the history of art. There is no denying the power of Picasso’s creative mind, and the effects of his stylistic experimentation in Cubism shaped the artistic movements that followed him. As an artist who would come to influence so many artists himself, Picasso is a pillar in the modern art world with a fascinating life full of inspiration.
In 1946, while visiting the annual pottery exhibition in Vallauris, Pablo Picasso had the good fortune to meet Suzanne and Georges Ramie. The Ramies owned the Madoura workshop, a ceramics studio in Vallauris, where Picasso, who was eager to delve into a new medium, made his first venture into ceramics. He became so enthralled with ceramics that he decided to move to Vallauris to pursue his new passion.
Picasso lived in the small, scenic town of Vallauris from 1948 to 1955. He bought and transformed Les Fournas, a former perfumery in Vallauris, into his studio, where he worked prolifically. Located in the south of France, Vallauris was renowned for its pottery. During his time in Vallauris, Picasso worked extensively, creating many ceramics, sculptures, linocuts, and paintings, including his masterpiece “War & Peace”, a diptyque that was installed in the chapel of the Château de Vallauris in 1959. It was also in Vallauris where Picasso first developed a fascination with two mediums: ceramics and linocuts.
Picasso loved the malleability of clay and the fiery firing process, which transformed clay into stunning works of ceramic art. He experimented with varied shapes, forms, textures, enamels, and glazes, innovating the ceramics medium. Picasso’s approach was anything but conventional- he would melt clay like bronze, fashion mythical creatures directly in the glaze, and tirelessly decorate plates and dishes with his favorites subjects, such as bullfights, women, owls, goats, fauns, and fish. He incorporated surprising and innovative materials into his craft and invented white paste, which is a ceramic that has not been glazed and decorated with pieces in relief. These white paste works are amongst the most stunning and desirable Picasso ceramics to date.
Picasso went on to create thousands of ceramics in the Madoura ceramic studio. Incollaboration with Suzanne and Georges Ramie and the skilled ceramicists at the Madoura studio, Picasso shaped plates, dishes, vases, jugs, and other earthenware utensils and then painted and decorated them with enamel and metal oxides. Picasso was particularly fascinated by the use of metal oxides, as their very nature meant that he never quite knew how the end product would look.
Just as Picasso collaborated with master printers to create editions of his printed works, Picasso collaborated with Suzanne and Georges Ramie to create set editions of his ceramic works. Today, these Picasso ceramics are amongst the most valuable and desirable works of Picasso’s entire artistic oeuvre. The diversity of form and range of subject matters found within Picasso ceramics lend them a rareness and unique charm that contributes to their increased demand in the art market.
In addition to ceramics, Picasso also became fascinated with the linoleum cut (or linocut) medium while living in Vallauris. Printer Hidalgo Arnera introduced Picasso to the linocut medium, initially suggesting linocuts as a suitable medium for producing posters. However, in his trademark fashion, Picasso pushed the boundaries of the linocut medium, creating astounding linocuts that remain amongst his most renowned and valuable prints to date. While Picasso’s first linocuts were used as posters to advertise the bullfights and ceramic exhibitions in Vallauris, he quickly transformed the linocut medium into a unique form of expression unlike anything the world had every seen, predominantly by placing increased emphasis on color and form.
Linoleum cuts (or linocuts) are a type of relief printmaking in which the artist-engraver cuts into a linoleum block to form a design. The remaining negative surface is then inked and printed. Desirable for their boldly graphic compositions, delightful use of ornamental patterns, expressive treatment of color, and superior handling of line, Picasso linocuts are collectible for their vibrant imagery and as relics of Picasso’s cherished time spent in Vallauris.
Picasso was an iconic and important figure in Vallauris’ history. He became a freeman of Vallauris and greatly contributed to the renaissance of the Vallauris pottery industry in the 1950s. Picasso also demonstrated his commitment to civic duty by creating linocut posters for Vallauris’ annual ceramic fairs and bullfights.
Following Picasso’s departure from Vallauris in 1955, Vallauris remained an important part of Picasso’s life. He retained fond memories of his time spent living in Vallauris, where his lover Francois Gilot and their children Claude and Paloma Picasso often accompanied him. Picasso would return to Vallauris at later points in his life to revisit the bullfights, exhibitions, and old friends and acquaintances. In fact, Vallauris was so dear to Picasso that he married his second wife Jacqueline Roque in great secrecy at the Vallauris town hall in 1961.
Picasso’s presence in Vallauris shaped the town’s history. Following his move there, other artists, such as Victor Brauner and Marc Chagall, rushed to work in the ceramic studios in Vallauris. Today, the Musee National Picasso in Vallauris pays homage to the artistic inspiration and personal happiness that Picasso found in Vallauris.
When Pablo Picasso passed away without a will, he left behind more than 45,000 works which have become the center of personal and financial struggle between his heirs. The artist was survived by 4 children from 3 different women. They are as follows: Paulo (with Olga Khokhlova), Maya (with Marie-Thérèse Walter), and Claude and Paloma (with Francoise Gilot). Paulo, the artist’s only legitimate son, passed away in 1975. His children Marina and Bernard Picasso now join Claude, Paloma and Maya as official heirs to the estate.
The heirs at the center of the estate negotiations are Claude and Paloma. The relationship between them with their father has been challenging. Their mother, Francoise Gilot, left Picasso after a ten year affair, and is the only lover to ever leave the artist. In 1964, she published a book titled Life with Picasso which infuriated Picasso and led him to bar Paloma and Claude from his home. Despite this severed relationship, the two children were eventually able to gain shares of the estate through a 1972 law which protected illegitimate offspring.
Since then, Claude Picasso has been named legal administrator of Picasso’s estate and is now the head of the Picasso Administration, an organization that manages the licensing of Picasso’s name. The administration oversees a huge variety of legal concerns. Each year, an annual report is largely dedicated to court cases that have been settled or are pending. Given the wide variety of objects (automobiles, pens, lingerie) which have acquired Picasso’s name, it is not surprising that the administration is constantly enmeshed in legal battles. Despite their persistence in protecting the artist’s name, there still remain hundreds of illegal brands titled “Picasso” around the world. In regards to Picasso’s artworks, Claude remains the official authenticator and receives on average almost 1000 requests for authentication annually. The verification process can be complicated, given the scholarship required and the necessity for Claude to view the works in person.
We can only imagine the Picasso Administration will strengthen its authority as the market for Picasso works continues to soar. The range of Picasso collectors has grown exponentially to include regions such as Asia and the Middle East. Just last year, there were 34 Picasso exhibitions in total around the globe. One recent exhibition which generated great excitement was MOMA’s Picasso Sculpture. The exhibition was well received for revealing the lesser known aspects of the artist’s expansive oeuvre. As such, Picasso’s name also retains its value in the commercial art market. In May, 2015 Picasso’s 1955 painting Les Femmes d’Alger (Version “O”) was sold by Christie’s for the astounding price of $179 million. This marked the record as the most expensive artwork ever sold at auction.
Evidenced by the popular museum exhibitions and the high auction prices, the wealth and renown of Picasso and his family will continue to grow. Given their status within the art world, the family has been incredibly philanthropic. For instance, the majority of the heirs have donated Picasso’s works to museums. Several works have also been auctioned in order to support various charities. Recently, it was announced that Picasso’s studio in Paris would be transformed into a research and educational center of the arts. This project is headed by the Maya Picasso Foundation for Arts Education and you may find more information here:
Without a doubt, the heirs place their father’s legacy and career above personal conflicts. Their contributions will surely provide for the next generation of artists and scholars who will continue to expand our knowledge of the modern master.
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Jacqueline Roque was born in 1927 in Paris, France. Her father left her family when she was relatively young, and her mother passed away when Jacqueline was only 18 years old. She married André Hutin in 1946 and together they had a daughter, Catherine. Their family moved to Africa for some years for Hutin’s job, but in 1952 the pair separated and Jacqueline and Catherine moved back to France. At this time, she began work in the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris.
Jacqueline Roque met Pablo Picasso at Madoura in 1952 and began modeling for him. Picasso was then living in the area with Françoise Gilot and their two children, Claude and Paloma. Their relationship was dwindling, and it was not long until Françoise left Picasso for good. Picasso and Jacqueline moved in to his La Californie villa together in 1954, when she was in her late twenties, and him in his early seventies. The love between them was immediate and obvious, as was Jacqueline’s devotion to Picasso. Some have had harsh words for her because of how she secluded Picasso from friends and family during the last 20 years of his life, but ultimately one cannot dispute that this was a very productive artistic period for him. Jacqueline continued to be a great muse for him until the end of his life, and there are more depictions of her than of any of Picasso’s other lovers. The two were married in 1961 after the death of Olga, Picasso’s first wife.
After Françoise Gilot’s book Life with Picasso was published, Picasso cut off contact with his children Claude and Pomona – it is unclear how much Jacqueline had to do with this. Picasso’s grandchildren have stated that when they went to visit their grandfather, Jacqueline would make them wait a very long time before seeing him. After Picasso died, this animosity did not let up – Jacqueline barred some of his family from his funeral, and battled his children over his estate. Ultimately, they all came to a compromise and the Musée Picasso was established. In 1986, distraught over the death of her husband and lover, Jacqueline committed suicide.
Dorment, Richard. “Picasso’s Saddest Love,” The Telegraph. January 14th, 2004. Accessed October 17th, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/3610082/Picassos-saddest-love.html
Kimmelman, Michael. “Picasso’s Family Album,” The New York Times. April 28th, 1996. Accessed October 17th, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/28/magazine/picasso-s-family-album.html
Kino, Carol. “Jacqueline Roque: Picasso’s Wife, Love & Muse,” The Wall Street Journal. September 30th, 2014. Accessed October 17th, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/jacqueline-roque-picassos-wife-love-muse-1412090662
Riding, Alan. “Grandpa Picasso: Terribly Famous, Not Terribly Nice,” The New York Times. November 24th, 2001. Accessed October 17th, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/24/books/grandpa-picasso-terribly-famous-not-terribly-nice.html
Walther, Ingo F. (ed). Pablo Picasso: 1881-1973 – Volume II. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen, 1994.
Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso were introduced in 1906 by Gertrude Stein. Thus began a long and artistically bountiful competitive dialogue between the two great artists. Though Matisse once said about the pair that they were “as different as the north pole is from the south pole,” their careers ran largely parallel partly due to the influences they exerted on the other. What may have begun as a mentoring relationship, as Matisse was older and more established than Picasso, soon turned into a one-upping contest. Upon viewing Matisse’s Le Bonheur de vivre, Picasso was inspired to live up to that work, and ultimately to surpass it with his response in the form of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, a work that changed the course of modern art. However new and exciting this painting was, it was influenced in many ways by Matisse. It was Matisse who showed Picasso an African sculpture he had, perhaps sparking the idea for Picasso to model his women on African masks. During the years the Picasso was struggling with Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, Matisse finished Blue Nude (Souvenir of Biskra), 1907.
Though they approached art in seemingly very different way, with Matisse the father of Fauvism and Picasso of the very different style Cubism, they frequently looked to one another for valuable criticism and cherished their conversations. During his love affair with Marie-Therese, there is a significant amount of Matissean influence in the bolder, more fauvish colors and the voluptuous, flowing bodies. The painters had such a connection that upon the death of Matisse, Picasso felt that he had been bequeathed his odalisques, which he began to explore – as an ode to Matisse, but also as a collaboration with his ideas even after his death.
Shortly before Matisse died, he began working with his cut outs. At the same time, Picasso picked up the idea of metal cut sculptures. The two artistic techniques are very clearly in dialogue with one another. John Golding, an art historian, in conversation with John Richardson explained the relationship by “saying that Matisse’s papiers découpés are painting aspiring to be sculpture and Picasso’s cut-metal pieces are sculpture aspiring to be painting.” In these ways, the two artists were inverses of one another, but more similar than they seemed. Such a relationship between the Matisse and Picasso no doubt pushed both to excel in their own work and to find an understanding and driving force in the other.
• Richardson, John. “Between Matisse and Picasso.” Vanity Fair.
• Schama, Simon.
“How Matisse and Picasso turned old age into art.” Financial Times. April 4th, 2014. Accessed February 7, 2017. https://www.ft.com/content/59192b0c-b994-11e3-b74f-00144feabdc0
• Trachtman, Paul. “Matisse & Picasso.” Smithsonian. Febraury 2003. Accessed February 7, 2017. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/matisse-picasso-75440861/
• Weisberg, Jacob. “Matisse vs. Picasso.” Slate. Accessed February 7, 2017. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/the_browser/1999/02/matisse_vs_picasso.html
More Readings on Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso:
A Simple Guide to Pablo Picasso Ceramic Markings and Stamps
In 1946, Pablo Picasso first set foot into the Madoura Pottery studio, and later began a prolific partnership between himself and Georges and Suzanne Ramie, owners of the studio. He approached this ceramic medium with the same inventiveness and imagination he brought to his previous paintings and prints. This would result in the creation of more than 1,000 plates, vases and plaques etc. numbered from editions of 25 to editions of 500 and some unique pieces. Broadly speaking, Picasso ceramics were produced in two methods:
1st: Directly replicating the shape and decoration of an original ceramic piece as closely as possible.
2nd: Engraving the original image into a dry mould which was then transferred to the new clay.
Each piece is certified and authenticated by the markings on the underside or the inside of any Picasso ceramic (also referred to as Picasso Madoura ceramics and Picasso pottery). The most common stamps and inscriptions read Madoura Plein Feu, Edition Picasso, Empreinte Originale de Picasso and Poinçon Original de Picasso. All of which indicate an authentic and limited edition.
Madoura Plein Feu
All Picasso ceramic works from the Madoura studio are engraved with the Madoura Plein Feu stamp. The stamp is a sign of authenticity and all works recognized by the studio are documented by Alain Ramié in the Picasso Catalogue of the Edited Ceramic Works 1947-1971.
Empreinte Originale de Picasso
Empreinte Originale de Picasso literally translates into “original print of Picasso”. This stamp appears on many of the Picasso ceramic pieces and signifies that Picasso created the work by transferring the original image onto new clay. This is the second method of creation from the aforementioned list.
Poinçon Original de Picasso
Picasso’s later ceramics (A.R. 613-633) will bear the Poinçon original de Picasso stamp. The Poinçon is made by stamping an original Picasso linoleum cut into the clay or terracotta. The last edition in this category was made in 1971. You can see an example from our collection here.
Picasso Ceramic Marking/Stamp - Edition Numbers
Edition numbers oftentimes accompany the stamps. As a general rule, a smaller edition, such as an edition of 25, will be more valuable than larger editions, such as an edition of 500. Moreover, the number within an edition indicates the relative age of a ceramic. Specifically, a work numbered 1/25 was created much earlier than a work numbered 25/25. Although the earlier edition numbers are considered more valuable, they are also more likely to be damaged due to aging.
Knowing and understanding the meaning of Picasso Ceramics markings and stamps is essential to the process of purchasing a Picasso ceramic. To learn more about what to keep in mind when purchasing, check out our guide to collecting Picasso ceramics.
MORE ON PABLO PICASSO:
Check out our collection of Picasso Ceramics
One of Pablo Picasso’s most famous political works, Guernica (1937) was Picasso’s reaction to the bombing of the Basque town Guernica by German and Italian warplanes during the Spanish Civil War in 1937 which was a fight for power between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratically elected Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a fascist rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. Picasso had an avid interest in politics and as Fascism was on the rise in the 1930s tensions mounted between the opposing camps with all of Europe becoming involved. Picasso, who had last visited Spain in 1934 and would never return, was living in Paris during this turbulent time and began to look for a way in which his work could contribute to the cause of the Republicans.
In his first such display, on July 14, 1936 Picasso contributed an enlarged version of an earlier painting on the theme of the Minotaur to some festivities organized by the Popular Front (supporters of the Republicans) which was used as the curtain for Romain Rolland's play Le 14 juillet. The Spanish Civil War broke out just a few days later, on July 18, 1936 and in response Picasso etched a sort of Cubist comic strip called "The Dream and Lie of Franco," portraying General Franco as a revolting little gnome, and wrote an accompanying poem to be sold for the benefit of the Spanish Republic.
To show their gratitude for his support, the Spanish Republic named Picasso the Honorary Director-in-Exile of the Prado Museum in 1936. As the events of the war unfolded in his beloved homeland, Picasso paid close attention, finding the German and French intervention in the war particularly appalling. In January of 1937, the Spanish Republican government commissioned him to create a large mural for the Spanish display at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. Picasso started working on a project, but after reading George Steer's eyewitness account of the event of the Guernica bombing in May of that year (originally published in both The Times and The New York Times on April 28), Picasso abandoned his original idea and started sketching a series of preliminary drawings for the mural-sized Guernica (1937). This new idea captivated his imagination and two months later in June of 1937, Picasso finished the painting.
At its unveiling at the Paris Exhibition that summer, the painting garnered little attention. It wasn’t until it’s brief world tour that it became famous and widely acclaimed, drawing international attention to the still ongoing Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Civil War ended in 1939 with General Franco taking control of Spain and the events of the Second World War soon followed which made the impact of Picasso’s work even more historic. After it’s tour, it was placed in the care of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, as it was Picasso's express desire that the painting should not be delivered to Spain until liberty and democracy had been re-established in the country. This occurred in 1981, when it was displayed at the Casón del Buen Retiro in Madrid to celebrate the centenary of Picasso's birth, October 24. This landmark exhibition was visited by almost a million people in the first year. Upon completion in 1992 of a gallery built specifically for the work at the Museo Reina Sofía, Guernica (1937) was moved to its current permanent location.
Although this is about the history of Guernica (1937), it would be remiss not to mention in brief part the symbolism as it serves as an anti-war symbol, a reminder of the tragedies of war, and an embodiment of peace. A combination of pastoral and epic styles, Guernica (1937) stands at 11 feet tall and 25.6 feet wide, a mural-size canvas painted in oil. A potent symbol of the destruction of war on innocent lives, the work is a testament to Picasso’s ingenuity as an artist and life-long passion for peace.
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If you’re from Paris, walking the many galleries of the Picasso exhibition at the San Francisco de Young might be like going home again. If you’re from the Bay Area, “Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris” will transport you to the French capital. Either way, Pablo Picasso at the de Young will make those attending the exhibition will feel that they are going to a long dinner with old friends. 150 paintings, drawings, sculptures and drawings from every phase of the artist’s richly varied career traveled from the Musée National Picasso for a foggy summer stay. Such a vast undertaking is all the more notable for its rarity – the collection from the Musée National Picasso is only on loan during the completion of extensive renovations scheduled through 2012.
Organized chronologically and by period, the exhibition provides insight into the breadth of Picasso’s oeuvre. From the early Blue Period in Barcelona through the revolution that was Cubism, it moves into Neo-Classicism and Surrealism; bronze and “found” sculpture shares space with such later, exuberantly fragmented paintings as The Matador (1970), a self-portrait.
“I haven’t got a style,” Picasso asserts, and this exhibition denies any possibility that the artist might be limited in people’s minds to a single movement. A range of styles, each mastered in its own right, fills the rooms. Notable is the complete absence of wall text explaining the history or analyzing the significance of the works. Timoth Burgand, Curator in Charge of American Art for the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, explains that this lack of text allows for personal, direct interaction with the art. Instead of being bogged down with explanation, the works are free to speak for themselves.
That we learn something new about Picasso from this exhibition is no surprise. Visit the Museu Picasso in Barcelona and an astounding range of works on paper display the master artist’s talent in the graphic arts. View our collection of ceramics and understand yet another, perhaps lesser known, side of his work. Travel to the Museo Reina Sofia in Madrid - the monumental Guernica and its black and white vision of the bombing of that town during the Spanish civil war awaits. If you can’t stop by the de Young for a visit before October 9, you will find the artist’s works scattered around the globe, or you might bring a piece from our collection home to you.
In the spring of 1907, Georges Braque visited the studio of Pablo Picasso to view Picasso’s notorious work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907). Impressed with what he saw, Braque quickly befriended Picasso. In the years that followed (1907-1914), Picasso and Braque were essentially inseparable. As Braque recalled, “We were like mountain-climbers roped together.” The two artists worked so closely together that their works from this period are sometimes difficult to tell apart.
Picasso and Braque forged a relationship that was part intimate friendship, part rivalry, and part two-man excursion into the unknown. The two artists were constantly in each other’s studio, scrutinizing each other’s work while challenging, motivating, and encouraging each other. Picasso said, “Almost every evening, either I went to Braque’s studio or Braque came to mine. Each of us had to see what the other had done during the day.” Through this artistic collaboration, Picasso and Braque invented Cubism, a new style of painting that shattered traditional forms of artistic representation.
Picasso and Braque’s relationship epitomizes the attraction of opposites. Braque’s father was a house painter and decorator who ensured that his son learned the necessary skills of his trade, while Picasso’s father was an academic painter who gave his son professional drawing lessons. Braque was a tall, reserved, systematic Frenchman whose artistic process was dictated by reason and balance. An incredibly private individual, Braque shunned the limelight and remained married to the same woman his entire life. In contrast, Picasso was a short, egotistical, outspoken, and unpredictable Spanishman who never stuck to one woman or painting style for a prolonged period of time. Hailed as the first celebrity artist, Picasso reveled in his very public status. However, despite their vastly different backgrounds and temperaments, Picasso and Braque complemented each other and contributed to the realization of a common vision with their joint creation of Cubism.
Both Picasso and Braque called into question conventional ideas about art as the imitation of reality. They initially drew inspiration from two key sources: works by Paul Cezanne and African art. Paul Cezanne’s use of fragmented space and ambiguous forms and the geometric shapes and figures apparent in African art, particularly African masks, paved the way stylistically for their development of Cubism. Together, Picasso and Braque developed a distinct Cubist style. Picasso shifted his focus from narrative imagery to pictorial design, while Braque channeled his creativity towards his use of materials and textures and the manipulation of light and space. While their Cubist works are visually similar, Picasso and Braque often strove for different aesthetic effects – Braque desired his works to maintain a sense of balance and harmony while Picasso strived to disrupt this sense of balance and harmony.
Picasso and Braque defined certain aspects of Cubism including distorted figures and forms and a monochromatic color palette of browns, greys, and blacks. They simplified figures and objects into geometric components and planes that may or may not add up to the whole figure or object as it would appear in the natural world and simultaneously depicted different points of view on one plane, suggesting a flat, two dimensional surface. In addition, Picasso and Braque experimented with pasting colored and printed pieces of paper into their paintings. Picasso is credited with inventing “collage” with his 1912 work Still Life with Chair Caning, while Braque is credited for inventing “papier collé,” or pasted paper, with his 1912 work Fruit Dish, and Glass. The difference between collage and papier collé is extremely subtle – papier collé refers exclusively to the use of paper, while collage may incorporate other two-dimension (non-paper) components, suggesting that both Picasso and Braque co-created these techniques together. Braque’s role in Cubism tends to be underplayed, as Picasso is often considered the more commercially acclaimed artist. However, both artists contributed greatly to the Cubist movement.
Picasso and Braque enjoyed a stint of productive and innovative collaboration until the fall of 1914, when Braque enlisted in the French Army early in WWI. Following the war, the two artists went their separate ways and never re-ignited their friendship. Picasso and Braque occasionally made snide remarks about each other, yet they remained loyal to what they shared from 1907-1914; they never expressed what transpired between them. As Braque recalled, ”Picasso and I said things to one another that will never be said again … that no one will be able to understand.” This dedication and respect is one seldomly seen in the art world, and their silence on what transpired signifies that they felt their time together was sacred.
William Rubin (1989), former director of the Department of Painting and Sculpture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, best sums up Picasso and Braque’s relationship when he states, “The collaboration between Picasso and Braque is unique in the history of art for its intensity, duration, and generative impact. No other modern style was the simultaneous invention of two artists in dialogue with each other. In the years of their association, Picasso and Braque not only produced a number of exceptionally great works, they created a visual language that could and would be used by artists with widely divergent aesthetic, literary, and political concerns.”
While the majority of Picasso and Braque’s works of Cubism are paintings, both artists also created stunning prints in the style of Cubism. Such Cubist prints are exceedingly rare and are often created after the image of renowned Cubist paintings such as Still Life with a Bottle of Rum (1911) by Picasso and Hommage a J.S. Bach (1911-12) by Braque. As both Picasso and Braque are credited with co-establishing and spearheading Cubism, these Cubists prints are iconic – they remain amongst their most collectible and treasured graphic works to date.
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Competition. Rivalry. Respect. Admiration. Bandit. All of these words were once used by both Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso in recognition of one and other. In Matisse and Picasso: The Story of their Rivalry and Friendship by Jack Flam, their tumultuous relationship is examined and brilliantly told.
Picasso was the first modern celebrity artist, unapologetic for his crass behavior, while Matisse lived in contrast, a reserved man shielding his life from the public view. They mocked each other in their respective works, yet revered each other for their talents.
Matisse ''left me his odalisques,'' Picasso famously declared after Matisse died, and then, in ''Women of Algiers,'' Picasso returned these odalisques to their original source, Delacroix. He was expressing what Françoise Gilot, the painter and Picasso's lover, called a kinship based on the common ''understanding of the same artists and the same principles.''
Both of the artists had a restless, self-confident, combative intelligence. As can be seen in the cross comparison of their careers and from the respect and admiration adorned from their art, they were strong contemporaries whose fame seemed to rise and fall in contrast to one and other. By the end, Picasso was strapping canvases onto the roof of his car and driving them over to show an elderly Matisse.
''Everything considered, there is only Matisse,'' Picasso said.
''Only one person has the right to criticize me,'' Matisse responded.
Picasso once said that in order to grasp 20th-century art, you ought to see ''side by side everything Matisse and I were doing.'' This rivalry and friendship seemed to bring out the best in both artists. Thus, us lovers of the art world, are fortunate that they co-existed because without the personality or presence of one or the other, who knows what sort of influences would have driven them, and what masterpieces we would have lost out on.
Picasso on the Big Screen: Antonio Banderas and Gwyneth Paltrow Set to Star in Picasso Biopic
Antonio Banderas and Gwyneth Paltrow reportedly plan to star in an upcoming biopic surrounding the life of Pablo Picasso. Entitled 33 Dias, the film will recount Picasso’s creation of his famed masterpiece Guernica. Spanish director Carlos Saura will direct the film, which should begin shooting later this year with a targeted 2015 release date.
Picasso created Guernica in response to the bombing of Guernica, a Basque country village in northern Spain, by German and Italian warplanes at the behest of the Spanish Nationalist forces on 26 April 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. With its monumental scale and twisted, tormented figures, Guernica serves as a powerful artistic statement on the horrors of war. With its vivid abstract imagery of pained humans, horses, and bulls in unnatural poses, Guernica highlights the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, especially innocent civilians. Upon its completion, Guernica was displayed around the world in a brief tour and gained worldwide fame. Guernica is currently displayed at the Museo Reina Sofia in Madrid, Spain.
A native Spaniard born in Malaga, Spain, Antonio Banderas has much in common with Pablo Picasso. At age 54, Banderas is also nearly the age that Picasso would have been when he created Guernica. Banderas states, the “time has come in my life where I understand him [Picasso] better” (Maneker, 2014). Gwyneth Paltrow, who is supposedly in talks to play Picasso’s famed mistress and muse Dora Maar, is, according to Banderas, “absolutely in love with Spain and speaks Spanish and French perfectly” (Maneker, 2014). While the film is not yet an absolute certainty, admirers and lovers of Picasso and his work can likely look forward to seeing Picasso depicted on the big screen in the near future.
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Our Guide to Collecting Picasso Ceramics
In 1947, shortly after the war, the collaboration with the Madoura studio began, and this is where he made his much loved Picasso ceramics. He painted approximately 4,000 pieces in this period, most of which are in the private collection of friends and family. During this immensely productive period, the master designed 633 ceramic editions alongside a number of unique pieces. He relied on two techniques to create the edition ceramic works. In one, he would painstakingly replicate the original object by hand as closely as possible. His second technique was much less demanding, for this he created original images in dry clay molds and transferred the image onto fresh clay. Originally, collecting Picasso ceramics was seen as gathering tourist souvenirs. Many critics were concerned by Picasso’ venturing into mass producing his artworks. Nevertheless, their initial hesitation bears no ill effect on the Picasso ceramic market today. Currently Picasso ceramics range from $2,000-$80,000, making them especially accessible to new buyers, with more rare and unique pieces ranging from $100,000 to over $1,000,000.
In fact, Picasso ceramics (also called Picasso Madoura ceramics after the studio, or Picasso pottery) are a pretty safe bet in today’s art market. In 2015, a Sotheby’s sale dedicated to these ceramics raised $2.5 million in auction sales. The ceramics have also become increasingly popular in museum exhibitions. For instance, in 2013 the Art Institute of Chicago staged the exhibition Picasso and Chicago which included ceramics from collections around the city.
Given the wide range of ceramics, aspiring and seasoned collectors must refer to the following guidelines in considering which works have the best value.
1. Examine the Stamps and Inscriptions
Picasso ceramics features several stamps and markings on the underside. The most common stamps are ‘Madoura plein feu’ , ‘ Empreinte originale de Picasso’ and ‘Edition Picasso’. The stamps refer to the techniques the artist used in creating a certain piece. For instance, Empreinte Originale de Picasso signifies that Picasso created the work by transferring the original image onto a new piece of clay. The ‘Madoura plein feu’ stamp simply indicates that the ceramic was created within the Madoura studio and documented by the Ramiés.
2. Pay Attention to the Edition Number
Edition Picasso ceramics are made in multiples of 25 to 500. The edition number can be found on the underside of the ceramic. Edition numbers reveal how early the piece was created. For instance, a work numbered 1/500 was created much earlier than another work numbered 500/500. In general, earlier numbers are considered to be more valuable. However, these earlier editions are also more likely to be damaged from aging. Keep in mind when collecting Picasso ceramics that the more limited the edition, the higher the value and price.
3. Inspect the Condition
To assess the condition, it is important to know the date a ceramic was made. It is much more difficult to find an earlier work in perfect condition. Another thing to keep in mind is the production process. Picasso’s ceramics vary from glazed and partially glazed to unglazed. Be prepared to differentiate between damage and imperfections from the production. In many cases cracks and imperfections which form on the glaze may very well be part of the final work.
4. Consider the Subject Matter
While the ceramic pieces maintain Picasso’s iconic style, subject matter is also important when choosing the right piece. Pieces which feature bulls, fish and Jacqueline Roque are more popular with collectors and therefore higher in price. Minotaurs, owls and birds are also quite popular.
5. Recognizing Personal Style
Personal preference and style should be the main point of consideration. Prior to purchasing a ceramic, decide what motif or color best suits the room. Since the ceramics also vary in size and shape, consider that in the context of where it is likely to be displayed. Many collectors purchase more than one ceramic so it is good to develop an idea early on for a potential collection. Do you prefer variety over consistency? If so, purchase from different editions each time. If consistency is your goal, focus either by theme and imagery or by color. With the many designs to choose from, there is something to suit every taste.
It can be daunting in the face of such a vast body of ceramic work to find what is right for you. If that is the case, consider the elements that you value most highly in a work of art. Is the place that the ceramic falls in the edition most important? Or are you a great lover of Greek mythology who prefers to focus on the content of the scene? Other things to focus on could be the techniques employed or the aesthetic appeal of colors used.
Given the wide variety of Picasso ceramics in terms of form, genre, and price, we are sure there is something for everyone to enjoy when collecting Picasso ceramics.
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