Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Fortitude from The World of Seven Virtues, c.1560
|Artist:||Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525 - 1569)|
|Title:||Fortitude from The World of Seven Virtues, c.1560|
|Image:||11 1/4 in x 8 5/8 in (28.6 cm x 21.9 cm)|
|Sheet:||11 1/4 in x 8 5/8 in (28.6 cm x 21.9 cm)|
|Framed:||28 3/4 in x 26 1/8 in (73 cm x 66.4 cm)|
|Edition:||A lifetime impression from the only state of two by Philips Galle based on an original work by Pieter Bruegel|
|Signature:||The signature of Bruegel (Breda, 1525 - Brussels, 1569) is inscribed in the lower right: 'Bruegel Inuentor.'|
|Condition:||This work is in excellent condition - a fine, dark impression|
According to H. Arthur Klein:
The Fortitude Bruegel represents in this print is the virtue whereby men overcome vices. It is a positive, militant quality. It is by no means a mere omission of evil acts; neither is it rash or reckless bravado. It is the courageous facing and conquest of harmful passions and the sins to which they lead. (130)
Created c. 1560, Fortitude features the following inscription in the lower margin: ANIMVM VINCERE, IRACVNDIAM COHIBERE, CAETERAQ [VE] VITIA ET, AFFECTVS | COHIBERE, VERA FORTITVDO EST (To conquer one’s impulses, to restrain anger and the other vices and emotions: this is the true fortitude). The signature of Bruegel (Breda, 1525 - Brussels, 1569) is inscribed in the lower right: ‘Bruegel Inuentor’ with FORTITVDO (Fortitude) in the lower center. A lifetime impression from the only state of two by Philips Galle based on an original work by Pieter Bruegel featuring the inscribed text plate along the lower margin on watermarked paper dating the piece to c. 1559 – 1591 (Gothic P with Flower, Br. 8715 - 8723).
Catalogue Raisonné & COA:
It is fully documented and referenced in the below catalogue raisonnés and texts (copies will be enclosed as added documentation with the invoices that will accompany the final sale of the work):
1. Bastelaer, René van. The Prints of Peter Bruegel the Elder, Catalogue Raisonné New Edition, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts: San Francisco, 1992. Listed and illustrated as catalogue raisonné no. 137 on pgs. 184-5.
2. Briquet, C.M. Les Filigranes, Dictionnaire Historique des Marques du Papier, Tome III L-O. Verlag: Leipzig, 1923. Watermark listed and illustrated as catalogue raisonné no. 8715 – 8723 on pg. 468.
3. Klein, H. Arthur. Graphic Worlds of Peter Bruegel the Elder, Dover Publications: New York, 1963. Listed and illustrated as catalogue raisonné no. 53 on pgs. 130-1.
4. Orenstein, Nadine M., ed. for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, Yale University Press: New Haven, 2001. Listed and illustrated as catalogue raisonné nos. 74-5 on pgs. 188-9 with further footnote reference on pg. 193.
5. Sellink, M. Pieter Bruegel: The Complete Paintings, Drawings and Prints. Ludion: NY, 2007. Listed and illustrated as catalogue raisonné no. 92.
6. A Certificate of Authenticity will accompany this work.
About the Framing:
Set in a Spanish style black and gold frame, the ribbon detailing of the moulding compliments the meandering curved shapes within the image. The black and gold coloration of the work also serves to enhance the contrasting colors within the frame as well. Completed with white, linen-wrapped mats with a matching gold inner fillet, Fortitude is set behind an archival Plexiglas cover.